22. Lugina e Preshevës

Migrimet e popullatës shqiptare të Luginës së Preshevës

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Autor: Fehmi Maliqi (analist)

Fazat e shpërnguljeve/migrimeve

Sipas rrëfimit të pleqve nga gjeneratat e mëhershme, në vitin 1912 territori i Luginës së Preshevës ishte hapësira nëpër të cilën po bëhej tërheqja e trupave të Perandorisë Osmane në drejtim të jugut dhe se kjo tërheqje pasohej me ardhjen e ushtrisë serbe e cila fuste tmerr e panik te shqiptarët që nuk i mbeti rrugë tjetër pos arratisë në drejtim të Shkupit. Para këtij eksodi ishte kapiteni i ushtrisë osmane me origjinë shqiptare, Ahmet Hamdi, i cili gjatë tërheqjes, në afërsi të Borocit, iu drejtua rreth 1.500 ushtarëve shqiptar duke iu thënë: “Ne më nuk mund t’iu mbrojmë, andaj nga unë jeni të lirë të merrni armatimet dhe nga sot të jeni në shërbim të mbrojtjes së familjeve e trojeve tuaja”, për të cilën gjë ai nga autoritetet osmane u dënua si tradhtarë, mirëpo vendimi nuk u ekzekutua meqë ishte strehuar në Egjipt, ku më pas do të deklaronte: “Betohem në fjalën e Allahut në Kuran se nuk kam bërë kurrfarë akti tradhtie, por vetëm kam bërë më të mirën që mund të bëhej në ato momente tmerri që kishte pllakosur shqiptarët e asaj zone”.

Nga këtu edhe fillon faza e parë e shpërnguljeve të shqiptarëve nga territori i Luginës së Preshevës, edhe pse pak vite më parë kishte qenë strehuese e muhaxhirëve nga Sanxhaku i Nishit të cilit ishin dëbuar nga atje, veçmas pas kryengritjes së dytë serbe dhe Krizës Lindore, 1875-78. Kjo fazë zgjati deri në fillimin e Luftës së Dytë Botërore.

Faza e dytë është ajo e periudhës së pas Luftës së Dytë Botërore, e cila fillon me përndjekjen e nacionalistëve shqiptar, heqjen e ferexhesë (që më së shumti u reflektua te shqiptarët e Maqedonisë e më pak në Kosovë, Mal të Zi dhe Luginë) u intensifikua në kohën e Rankoviqit me ç’rast shqiptarët, për shkak të tmerrit të përjetuar nga “mbledhja e armëve” shpërnguleshin për në Turqi përmes “vesikave”. Mirëpo kjo valë do të ndërpritet pas Planumit të Brioneve (1966) kur edhe bie Rankoviqi dhe fillon një fazë me sjellje më të buta ndaj shqiptarëve, që do të ishte shkak i fillimit të fazës së tretë të shpërnguljes së heshtur drejt vendeve të Evropës Perëndimore e cila zgjati deri në fundin e viteve tetëdhjeta.

Faza e katërt e shpërnguljeve fillon nga vitet nëntëdhjeta e deri më sot e cila përveç dallimit në intensitetin dhe përmasën e shpërnguljeve, ende nuk ka të ndalur.

Sipas statistikave të shpërnguljeve/migrimeve del që 60% e popullatës shqiptare të Luginës kanë emigruar në Zvicër, prandaj edhe sot e gjithë ditën në këtë shtet ndodhet pjesa më e madhe e popullsisë migruese nga Lugina. Vendi i dytë me numrin më të madh të emigrantëve të jashtëm është Gjermania me 17% të popullsisë së migruar. Pastaj vijnë me radhë Austria me 8%, Suedia me 4%, Norvegjia me 2%, Franca dhe SHBA me nga 1% dhe vendet e tjera me 1%.

Intensiteti i shpërnguljeve nëpër faza

Brenda periudhës 1965-1970, në botën e jashtme kanë emigruar 2% e popullsisë. Kjo, njëherësh paraqet periudhën iniciale të migrimeve kur për herë të parë entet e punësimit, si ndërmjetësuese, ofronin mundësinë e shkuarjes dhe gjetjen e punës në botën e jashtme.

Punësimi i shpejtë, çmimi i lartë i punës dhe benefitet e tjera sociale dhe shëndetësore nga të cilat përfitojnë emigrantët e parë, shpejtë joshën shumë të rinj të cilët fillojnë më intensivisht të migrojnë në shtetet e Evropës Perëndimore. Prandaj gjatë periudhës 1971-1981, migrojnë rreth 14% e emigrantëve nga Lugina, ndërsa, periudha 1981-1990 shënon numrin më të madh të atyre që emigrojnë nga rajoni (39%). Gjatë periudhës së parë dhe të dytë, migrojnë vetëm kryefamiljarët, ndërsa në fund të viteve të 80-ta, dukuria e migrimeve merr dimension tjetër, kur fillon migrimi i familjeve të tëra ose formave të ndryshme të bashkimit familjar. Në periudhën deri në fund të viteve të 70-ta të shekullit të kaluar shkaqet e migrimeve kanë qenë kryesisht ekonomike, ndërsa nga viti 1981 e këndej, përveç shkaqeve ekonomike, migrimet nxiten edhe për arsye politike, andaj kjo rezulton në përqindjen më të lartë të popullsisë që migron në botën e jashtme. Kjo është periudha e fillimit të krizës dhe rrjedhimisht të shthurjes së ish-Jugosllavisë që nisë pikërisht në Kosovë.

Migrimet pas vitit 2001

Emigrimi i popullsisë nga Lugina në botën e jashtme vazhdon edhe pas vitit 2001. Kështu në periudhën prej 2001-2010 nga ajo kanë emigruar 12% e numrit të përgjithshëm të emigrantëve. Gjatë kësaj periudhe migrimit i kontribuon edhe liberalizimi i regjimit të vizave që Serbia arrin të realizojë me shumicën e vendeve të BE-së. Gjatë kësaj periudhe kemi emigrimin e familjeve të tëra nga komuna e Preshevës dhe Bujanocit, kryesisht për në Belgjikë, Suedi, Francë, Holandë etj. Shumica dërmuese e popullsisë që ka migruar (92%) ndodhet në të njëjtin vend ku ka emigruar për herë të parë, ndërsa vetëm 8% e kanë ndërruar vendin e migrimit. Pjesa më e madhe e emigrantëve kanë shkuar si fuqi punëtore (61%), ndërsa të tjerët për arsye të tjera.

Pjesa më e madhe e emigrantëve kanë të mbaruar vetëm shkollimin fillor (40%) dhe atë të mesëm (44%) dhe 3% e tyre nuk e kanë përfunduar as shkollën fillore. Vetëm 8% e emigrantëve kanë të mbaruar shkollimin e lartë dhe 5% kanë nivel superior të shkollimit. Migrimet nuk do të ndalen për sa kohë qeveritë e Shqipërisë dhe Kosovës, bashkë me liderët institucional dhe politikë të Luginës nuk hartojnë një strategji kuptimplote për zhvillimin e këtij rajoni me qëllim të rikthimit të besimit dhe mundësive për të jetuar këtu. Deri më tani të dy qeveritë, përveç që kanë ndihmuar në shkollimin e kuadrove shqiptare duke iu ofruar të rinjve të këtushëm studime me çmime simbolike në universitetet e atjeshme, nuk kanë bërë asgjë tjetër sa i përket investimit të mjeteve në projekte të rëndësisë ekonomike-zhvillimore. Ato deri më tani kanë ndarë vetëm nga 50.000 euro për maternitetin në Preshevë dhe së fundimi 40.000 euro të premtuara nga Ministri i Drejtësisë së Kosovës, Abelard Tahiri dhe të aprovuara nga Qeveria e Republikës së Kosovës, të drejtuar nga kryeministri Ramush Haradinaj (të cilat për shkak të pengesave administrative ende nuk i janë bartur Komunës së Bujanocit).

Prandaj, deri sa Shqipëria e Kosova merren me një luftë të brendshme politike pa kurrfarë etike, strategjie dhe vizioni, madje jashtë çdo interesimi për çështjet më jetike të fatit të shqiptarëve – e veçmas ku ata janë pakicë – pabarazia, diskriminimi, mungesa e investimeve në hapjen e vendeve të reja të punës, migrimi, shpërnguljet në Kosovës, martesat e vonuara dhe rënia e natalitetit kanë bërë që edhe Lugina e Preshevës (në një mënyrë apo tjetër) të ballafaqohet me “mortajën e bardhë”. Kjo më së miri ilustrohet me rënien drastike të numrit të nxënësve nëpër shkolla, dhe me shtimin e numrit të pleqve të mbetur vetëm, pa ata që ua kishin “investuar” tërë dashurinë, sakrificën dhe ëndrrat më të bukura, që i thur secili prind normal për fëmijët e vet.

(Revista “Vlera”, nr. 27, tetor/nëntor 2018, fq. 8-10)




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