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Dy fjalë për muzikën

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Ka ‘ulema’ dijetarë dhe mendimtarë muslimanë, që e kanë konsideruar muzikën të ndaluar (haram), ndërsa të tjerë e kanë parë të lejuar për ata, të cilëve ajo nuk ua ndez pasionet. Sidoqoftë, kësaj çështjeje nuk i është dhënë kurrë përgjigje kategorike nga juristët në historinë islame, ndërkohë që muzika u zhvillua gjerësisht në viset e ndryshme të muslimanëve, shumë prej saj në mënyrë të kulluar fetare e shpirtërore.

Ekziston sigurisht muzika ushtarake dhe ajo e kënduar nga fshatarët në periudhë korrjesh etj., me natyrë më tepër folklorike. Por ekzistojnë gjithashtu traditat klasike të muzikës, nga të cilat më madhoret në qytetërimin islam janë arabja, persiania, turkja dhe ajo muslimane e Indisë së Veriut, që është bërë e njohur si muzikë indiane por shumica e ekzekutuesve të së cilës deri sot e kësaj dite kanë emra muslimanë. Këto shkolla të muzikës e pasqyrojnë në masë të madhe aspektin e brendshëm të këtij arti në botën islame.

Ato nuk janë arte që përdoren për qëllime shoqërore, si muzika e kërcimit që dëgjohet në Perëndim. Përkundrazi, ato zakonisht lidhen me poezinë mistike dhe gjendjet soditëse fetare e shpirtërore. Kjo muzikë u zhvillua ndër shekuj kryesisht nga mistikët islam, prej sufive të tillë si Xhelaluddin Rumiu dhe Amir Khusrovi. Kësisoj, muzika tradicionale u lidh ngushtë me letërsinë, sidomos poezinë, duke krijuar një mjet të përkryer për madhërimin e Allahut dhe një ndihmës të fuqishëm për kujtimin e Tij.

Sigurisht, siç u përmend më parë, arti i epërm që ka të bëjë me tingullin dhe i cili përbën “muzikën” supreme në Islam (megjithëse fjala muzikë nuk përdoret kurrë për të) është këndimi i Kuranit Fisnik. Këndimi i Kuranit është në një kuptim përvoja protomuzikore e shpirtit të muslimanit dhe burimi i etosit të shkollave klasike të muzikës që janë zhvilluar ndër shekuj, ashtu sikurse teksti i tij është burimi i letërsive së popujve islam.

Po kështu, Kurani i përmban në mënyrë të hollë parimet dhe përbën origjinën e shpirtit të arteve pamore të Islamit, qoftë kaligrafisë, e cila burimisht lidhej drejtpërsëdrejti me tekstin e Kuranit, apo arkitekturës, që krijon hapësira ku muslimani dëgjon përgjatë tërë jetës bukurinë qiellore të Fjalës së Allahut, e cila jehon nga mihrabi nëpër hapësirat e xhamisë dhe nga minarja nëpër hapësirat e mjedisit urban islam.

Autor: Dr. Sejjid Husein Nasr

(Revista “Vlera”, nr. 13, janar 2015, fq. 47)




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